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Apache Wood Guide

DOMESTIC SPECIES
Ash

Appearance
Color: Heartwood is light tan to dark brown; sapwood is creamy white. Similar in appearance to white oak, but frequently more yellow.
Grain: Bold, straight, moderately open grain with occasional wavy figuring. Can have strong contrast in grain in plainsawn boards.
Variations Within Species And Grades: Sometimes confused with hickory; the zone of large pores is more distinctive in ash, similar to that of red oak.

Workability
Sawing/Machining: Good machining qualities.
Sanding: Sands satisfactorily if the correct sanding sequence is followed.
Nailing: No know problems.
Finishing: May be difficult to stain

Properties
Hardness/Janka: 1320; 2% harder than Northern red oak.
Dimensional Stability: Above average (7.8; 9% mre stabel than Northern red oak)
Availability: Readily available. Origin North America

Beech

Appearance
Color: Heartwood is mostly reddish brown; sapwood is generally pale white.
Grain: Mostly closed, straight grain; fine, uniform texture. Coarser than European beech.
Variations Within Species And Grades: Only one species is native to the United States. Moderate to high color variation between boards.

Properties
Hardness/Janka: Janka Hardness: 1300 (1% harder than Northern red oak. Dimensional Stability: Below average (11.9%; 38% less stable than Northern red oak).

Workability
Sawing/Machining: Difficult to work with hand tools, but good machining qualities.
Sanding: Sands satisfactorily if correct sanding sequence is followed.
Nailing: Has a tendency to split the tongues.
Finishing: May be difficult to stain.
Availability: Moderately available. Orgin is North America

Birch
Appearance
Color: In yellow birch (B. alleghaniensis), sapwood is creamy yellow pale while; heartwood is light reddish brown tinged with red. In sweet birch (B. lenta), sapwood is light colored and heartwood is dark brown tinged with red.
Grain: Medium figuring, straight, closed grain, even texture. Occasional curly grain or wavy figure in some boards.
Variations Within Species And Grades: Yellow birch, sweet birch, paper birch. Paper birch (B. papyrifera) is softer and lower in weight and strength than yellow or sweet birch. However, yellow birch is most commonly used for flooring. Boards can vary greatly in grain and color.

Properties
Hardness/Janka: Janka:1260 (yellow); 2% softer than Northern red oak.
Dimensional Stability: Average (Yellow: 9.5; 10% less stabel than Northern red oak).

Workability
Sawing/Machining: Difficult to work with hand tools, but good machining qualities.
Sanding: Sands satisfactorily if the correct sanding sequence if followed.
Nailing: No known problems.
Finishing: May be difficult to stain.
Orgin: North America
Availability: Moderately available.
Cherry (black)
Appearance
Color: Heartwood is light to dark reddish brown, lustrous; sapwood is light brown to pale with a light pinkish tone. Some flooring manufacturers steam lumber to bleed the darker heartwood color into the sapwood, resulting in a more uniform color. Color darkens s
Grain: Fine, frequently wavy, uniform texture. Distinctive flake pattern on true quartersawn surfaces. Texture is satiny, with some gum pockets.
Variations Within Species And Grades: Significant color variation between boards.

Properties
Hardness/Janka: Janka: 950; 26% softer than Northern red oak.
Dimensional Stability: Above average (7.1; 17% more stabel than Northern red oak)

Workability
Sawing/Machining: Good machining qualities.
Sanding: Sands satisfactorily if the correct sanding sequence is followed.
Nailing: No known problems.
Finishing: No known problems.
Origin: North America
Availability: Readily available.
Douglas Fir

Appearance
Color: Heartwood is yellowish tan to light brown. Sapwood is tan to white. Heartwood may be confused with that of Southern yellow pine. Radical color change upon exposure to sunlight.
Grain: Normally straight, with occasional wavy or spiral texture. Nearly all fir flooring is vertical-grain or riftsawn clear-grade material.
Variations Within Species And Grades: Wood varies greatly in weight and strength. Young trees of moderate to rapid growth have reddish heartwood and are called red fir. The narrow-ringed wood of old trees may be yellowish-brown and is known as yellow fir.

Properties
Hardness/Janka: Janka: 660; (49% softer than Northern red oak).
Dimensional Stability: Above average (7.3; 15% more stable than Northern red oak)

Workability
Sawing/Machining: Harder to work with hand tools than the soft pines.
Sanding: Sands satisfactorily if the correct sanding sequence is followed.
Nailing: No known problems.
Finishing: Some boards develop a slight pinkish to bright salmon color when finished with some products. Because of tendency toward color change, care must be taken to avoid oversanding when refinishing an existing floor. May be difficult to stain.
Orgin: North America
Availability: Readily Available.

Hickory/Pecan
Appearance
Color: Pecan heartwood is reddish brown with dark brown stripes; sapwood is white or creamy white with pinkish tones. Hickory heartwood is tan or reddish; sapwood is white to cream, with fine brown lines.
Grain: Pecan is open, occasionally wavy or irregular. Hickory is closed, with moderate definition; somewhat rough-textured.

Variations Within Species And Grades: In both hickory and pecan, there are often pronounced differentiations in color between spring wood and summer wood. In pecan, sapwood is usually graded higher than darker heartwood. Pecan and hickory are traditionally mixed by flooring mills.

Properties
Hardness/Janka: Janka:1820; (41% harder than Northern red oak). Pecan is slightly softer than true hickories.
Dimensional Stability: Pecan, average (8.9; 3% less stable than Northern red oak.

Workability
Sawing/Machining: Hickory's density makes it difficult to machine and work with hand tools
Sanding: Difficult to sand because of density, and because light color makes sander markers show more than on darker woods.
Nailing: Has a tendcy to split the tongues.
Finishing: May be difficult to stain
Orgin: North America
Availability: Readily Available.
Maple,
Sugar/Hard
Appearance
Color: Heartwood is creamy white to light reddish brown; sapwood is pale to creamy white.
Grain: Closed, subdued grain, with medium figuring and uniform texture. Occasionally shows quilted, fiddleback, curly or bird's-eye figuring. Figured boards often culled during grading and sold at a premium.
Variations Within Species And Grades: Black maple (B. nigrum) is also hard; other species are classified as soft.

Properties
Hardness/Janka: Janka: 1450; (12% harder than Northern red oak).
Dimensional Stability: Average (9.9; 15% less stable than red oak).

Workability
Sawing/Machining: Density makes machining difficult.
Sanding: Extra care must be taken during sanding and finishing, as sanding marks and finish lines are more obvious due to maple's density and light color. The species also burnishes, dulling fine paper and screens and making it difficult to cut out previous scra
Nailing: No known problems.
Finishing: Takes neutral finish well; May be difficult to stain.
Comments: Origin: North America
Availability: Easily available. Figured grains have limited availability.
Mesquite

Appearance
Color: Light brown to dark reddish brown.
Grain: High in character, with ingrown bark and mineral streaks. Most commonly used in flooring as end-grain block, which has small irregular cracks radiating across the grain.
Variations Within Species And Grades: One grade; moderate color variations.

Properties
Hardness/Janka: Janka:2345; (82% HARDER than Northern red oak).
Dimensional Stability: Excellent (3.2; 63% more stable than Northern red oak).

Workability
Sawing/Machining: Very good machining qualities.
Sanding: Plainsawn can be sanded to a smooth surface. End-grain requires a coarser abrasive to flatten; it is recommended that it be flattened by sanding at a 45-degree angle to the grain.
Nailing: Splits tongues easily.
Finishing: No known problems.
Comments: End-grain block usage results in a hard, high-wear surface. Produces only shorter-lenght boards.

Oak, Red
Appearance
Color: Heartwood and sapwood are similar, with sapwood lighter in color; most pieces have a reddish tone. Slightly redder than white oak.
Grain: Open, slightly coarser (more porous) than white oak. Plainsawn boards have a plumed or flared grain appearance; riftsawn has a tighter grain pattern, low figuring; quartersawn has a flake pattern, sometimes called tiger rays or butterflies.
Variations Within Species And Grades: Over 200 subspecies in North America; great variation in color and grain, depending on the origin of the wood and differences in growing seasons. Northern, Southern and Appalachian red oak can all be divided into upland and lowland species.

Properties
Hardness/Janka: Janka:1290 Northern (benchmark). Southern: 1060; 18% softer than Northern red oak.
Dimensional Stability: Northern: average (8.6). Southern: below average (11.3; 31% less stable than Northern red oak.

Workability
Sawing/Machining: Above average in all machining operations.
Sanding: Sands satisfactorily if the correct sanding sequence is followed.
Nailing: No known problems.
Finishing: Stains well & demonstrates strong stain contrast. Red oak generally works better than white for bleached floors because it is more porous, and because tannins in white oak can discolor the floor.
Origin: North America
Availability: Easily available
White Oak
Appearance
Color: Heartwood is light brown; some boards may have a pinkish tint or a slight grayish cast. Sapwood is white to cream.
Grain: Open, with longer rays than red oak. Occasional crotches, swirls and burls. Plainsawn boards have a plumed or flared grain appearance; riftsawn has a tighter grain pattern, low figuring; quartersawn has a flake pattern, sometimes called tiger rays or butt
Variations Within Species And Grades: Considerable variation among boards in color and grain texture, but variations not as pronounced as in red oak.

Properties
Hardness/Janka: Janka: 1210 (6% softer than Northern red oak)
Dimensional Stability: Average (1-.5; 22% less stable than red oak)

Workability
Sawing/Machining: Excellent machining qualities.
Sanding: Sands satisfactorily if the correct sanding sequence is followed.
Nailing: No known problems.
Finishing: During the finishing process, tannins at the surface can react with some liquids to turn the wood green or brown. This effect tends to be mroe pronounced with products that have a high water content, such as wood bleach & water-based finishes.
Comments: Stains very well and accepts stain evenly.
Origin: North America
Availability: Easily Available.
Pine,
Antique Heart

Appearance
Color: Heartwood is yellow after cutting & turns deep pinkish tan to warm reddish brown within weeks due to high resin content. Sapwood remains yellow, with occasional blue-black sap stain.
Grain: Dense, with high figuring. Plainsawn is swirled; rift- or quartersawn is primarily pinstriped. Curly or burl grain is rare.
Variations Within Species And Grades: Moderate color variation.

Properties
Hardness/Janka: Janka:1225; (5% softer than Northern red oak).
Dimensional Stability: Values can vary greatly due to the variety of species and ages used.

Workability
Sawing/Machining: Good machining and hand-tooling qualities.
Sanding: Tendency to clog paper due to high resin content; Abrasives will need to be changed frequently during sanding. Beginning with a coarse grade is recommended.
Nailing: No known problems.
Finishing: May be difficult to stain. To reduce the wood's tendency to repel finish coats, surface resins may be removed with a 100% pure (not recycled) solvent that is compatibel with the finish to be used. Do not use water.
Comments: Origin: North America. Often recovered from structural timers in pre-1900 warehouses & factories, or as sunken logs from river bottoms.
Pine,
Southern Yellow

Appearance
Color: Heartwood varies from light yellow/orange to reddish brown or yellowish brown; sapwood is light tan to yellowish white.
Grain: Closed, with high figuring; patterns range from clear to knotty.
Variations Within Species And Grades: Longleaf pine (P. palustris), shortleaf pine (P. echinata), loblolly pine (P. taedo), slash pine (P. elliottii). All have many of the same characteristics as Douglas fir.

Properties
Hardness/Janka: Loblolly and shortleaf 690, 47% softer than Northern red oak; longleaf 870, 33% softer than Northern red oak.
Dimensional Stability: Above average (change coefficient .00265; 28% more stable than red oak).
Durability: Soft, fairly durable, although not as resistant to scuffs, dents and abrasions as the hardwoods. Often used for flooring, but may not be suitable for all applications due to its softness. Workability
Sawing/Machining: Good machinging qualities.
Sanding: Resin in wood tends to clog abrasives; frequent sandpaper changes are required.
Nailing: Good holding ability and resistance to splitting.
Finishing: A durable finish can help minimize wear.
Comments: Origin: North America
Availability: Easily available.
Walnut, American Black
Appearance
Color: Heartwood ranges from a deep, rich dark brown to a purplish black. Sapwood is nearly white to tan. Difference between heartwood and sapwood color is great; some flooring manufacturers steam lumber to bleed the darker heartwood color into the sapwood.
Grain: Mostly straight and open, but some boards have burled or curly grain. Arrangements of pores is similar to hickories and persimmon, but pores are smaller in size.
Variations Within Species And Grades: Great variety of color and figure within species, as well as variation in color among boards, especially in lower grades and from material that isn't steamed prior to kiln-drying.

Properties
Hardness/Janka: Janka: 1010; (22% softer than Northern red oak).
Dimensional Stability: Average (7.8; 9% more stable than Northern red oak).
Durability: Moderately dense, very strong, good shock resistance. Not as dent-resistant as oak.

Workability
Sawing/Machining: Excellent machining qualities.
Sanding: Sands satisfactorily.
Nailing: No known problems
Finishing: No known finish problems.
Comments: Frequently used as a highlight material for borders or other inlay techniques.
Origin: North America
Availability: Moderately available.

IMPORTED SPECIES

Bamboo
Appearance
Color: Typically available in light (manila/yellow tones) or dark (tannish brown) shades. Colors vary between manufacturers.
Grain: Distinctive grain pattern shows nodes from the bamboo stalks.
Variations Within Species And Grades: Available either horizontally or vertically laminated. Horizontal construction tends to show nodes more prominently.

Properties
Hardness/Janka: Bamboo is a grass. Janka values vary widely between various manufacturers & between horizontal & vertical construction.
Dimensional Stability: Engineered construction

Workability
Sawing/Machining: Cuts easily with most tools.
Sanding: Due to its unique, fibrous structure, bamboo should not be sanded across the grain or at at 45-degree angle to the grain. Its light color tends to show swirl marks, other sanding marks & finish imperfections, much as a light maple floor can.
Nailing: No known problems
Finishing: All surface-typ finishes have been used successfully with bamboo. Darker colors may tend to show lap marks-moving quickly during application and applying finish quickly around cut-in areas can minimize this effect. Filling is recommended.
Comments: Most available factory-finished. Because product is rigid, careful attention should be payed to flatness of subfloor.
Origin: Asia. Majority made in China wwith some from Vietnam.
Availability: Readily Available
Brazilian Cherry

Appearance
Color: Sapwood is gray-white; heartwood is salmon red to orange-brown when fresh, and becomes russet or reddish brown when seasoned; often marked with dark streaks.
Grain: Mostly interlocked; texture is medium to rather coarse.
Variations Within Species And Grades: Moderate to high color variation.
Properties
Hardness/Janka: Janka:2820; 119% harder than Northern red oak.
Dimensional Stability: Average (8.5; 1% more stable than Northern red oak). However, actual installations have shown significant movement. Longer-than-normal acclimation time is recommended.

Workability
Sawing/Machining: Sawing is difficult due to high density; requires frequent resharpening of tools. Planing is difficult due to interlocked grain. Can be machined to a smooth surface. Carbide tooling recommended.
Sanding: Scratches are easily seen. Each sanding must carefully remove the scratches from the previous cut, or sanding marks will be visible in the finish.
Nailing: Due to hardness it is very important that the angle of penetration be adjusted carefully. If using a pneumatic nailer, the air pressure should be adjusted.
Finishing: Coating with oil-modified polyurethane may occasionally cause white spots or specks, as well as white end joints, to appear. This may be avoided by buffing in a clear oil sealer or neutral stain, then buffing on satin polyurethane.
Origin: South America
Availability: Easily available.

Bubinga
Appearance
Color: Pink, red or red/brown with purple streaks or veins; changes from pinkish rose when freshly milled to burgundy red when aged
Grain: Fine; straight or interlocked, can be highly figured.
Variations Within Species And Grades: Quartered exhibits flame figure; flatsawn has rosewood graining.

Properties
Hardness/Janka: Janka: 2690 (109% harder than Northern red oak)
Dimensional Stability: Average (8.4; 2% more stable than Northern red oak.
Durability: Workability
Sawing/Machining: Saws and planes well.
Sanding: Sands satisfactorily if correct sanding sequence is followed.
Nailing: Tends to split tongues. Pre-drilled and hand-nailing may be preferred.
Finishing: Test all products before using them on actual floor. Oil-modified finished will require a lengthy dry time.
Origin: Africa
Availability: Limited availability
Cork

Appearance
Color: Varies from light to dark; many colors available depending on manufacturer
Grain: Distinctive look unlike wood - cork is actually the bark of a type of oak.
Variations Within Species And Grades: Many patterns available depending on manufacturer.
Properties
Hardness/Janka: Janka: Varies
Dimensional Stability: Cork reacts quickly, sometimes within hours, to changes in moisture. (Typical dimensional stability measurments do not apply to cork's composite construction).

Workability
Sawing/Machining: Cork may be cut with a utility knife
Sanding: Use the finest grit possible to flatten the floor. The following sequences are recommended for use only with a multi-disc sander or a hardplate on a buffer. If the edger is used, fine sandpaper (100/120/150) should be backed with a maroon pad.
Nailing: Cork is installed using adhesive
Finishing: All surface-type finishes are successfully used on cork (choose a finish that will bend as the cork compreses). Oil-and-wax also is used frequently.
Comments: Pay particular attention to subfloor preparation, as cork is very sensitive to moisture, and also transfers any imperfections in the subfloor to the surface appearance.
Origin: Spain and Portugal

Curmaru
Appearance
Color: At first, red-brown or purple-brown with light yellow-brown or purple streaks, after exposure uniform light brown or yellow-brown.
Grain: Fine texture, interlocked, waxy or oily feel.
Variations Within Species And Grades: Dramatic shading that mellows as the floors matures.

Properties
Hardness/Janka: 3540; 174% harder than Northern red oak
Dimensional Stability: Average (7.6; 7% more stable than red oak).
Durability: Workability
Sawing/Machining: Works well, but is very hard – use carbide blades and bits.
Sanding: Difficult. Scratches are easily seen – each sanding
Suggested Sequence:
First Cut: 36 or 40
Second Cu: 50 or 60
Third Cut: 80
Hard Plate: 100
Screen: 80, then 100
Nailing: Predrilling and hand-nailing is preferred.
Finishing: Test all products before using them on the actual floor. Oil-modified finishes may not dry if standard procedures are followed. Moisture-cure urethane, conversion varnish, or water base finishes are generally more successful.
Comments: Has been known to cause contact dermatitis.
Australian Cypress
Appearance
Color: Cream-colored sapwood; heartwood is honey-gold to brown with darker knots throughout.
Grain: Closed.
Variations Within Species And Grades: High degree of color variability.

Properties
Hardness/Janka: Janka:1375; (7% harder than Northern red oak.
Dimensional Stability: Excellent (change coefficient .00162; 56% more stable than red oak). However, actual installations have demonstrated significant movement in use.
Durability: Excellent (2.8; 67% more stable than Northern red oak). However, actual installations have demonstrated significant movement. Workability
Sawing/Machining: Good machining qualities.
Sanding: Tendency to clog paper due to high resin content. Hardplating & screening may leave swirls; screening more than twice may be necessary. The knots are extremely hard & may cause wave in the floor. a 12-by-18 inch oscillating sander is recommended as the
Nailing: Can be brittle (like Brazilian cherry); splits easily.
Finishing: Knots may cause drying problems with some finishes.
Comments: Potential for respiratory/allergic reations.
Origin: Australia
Spotted Gum
Appearance
Color: Heartwood is light to dark brown, sapwood is pale and may be as wide as 3.12 inches (8cm).
Grain: Interlocked, moderately coarse, Frequent presence of wavy grain produces "fiddleback" grain. Slightly greasy; gum veins are common

Properties
Hardness/Janka: Janka: 2473 (92% harder than Northern red oak).
Dimensional Stability: Data not available.
Durability: Workability
Sawing/Machining: Good.
Sanding: No know problems.
Nailing: Pre-drilling and hand-nailing may be preferred.
Finishing: No known problems.
Comments: Origin: Australia
Sydney Blue Gum
Appearance
Color: Wide range from pinks to burgundy reds; regrowth timber may be a pale straw color with pink highlights. Colors mute over time and darken to a medium brown-red.
Properties
Hardness/Janka: Janka: 2023; (57% harder than Norhern red oak.
Dimensional Stability: Data not available.
Durability: Workability
Sawing/Machining: Very hard - carbide blades and bits required.
Sanding: No known problems.
Nailing: pre-drilling and hand-nailing may be preferred.
Finishing: No known finishing problems.
Origin: Australia
Iroko

Appearance
Color: Light to medium brown when newly installed; has a significant color change and turns to brown/dark brown over time.
Grain: Interlocked medium to coarse texture.
Variations Within Species And Grades: Dramatic difference between quartersawn and flatsawn products.

Properties
Hardness/Janka: Janka: 1260 (2% softer than Northern red oak).
Dimensional Stability: Excellent (3.8; 66% more stable than Northern red oak).

Workability
Sawing/Machining: Somewhat stringy - may split and splinter when resanding or ripping.
Sanding: No known problems.
Nailing: No known problems
Finishing: Staining and/or bleaching this species may be difficult. No finish compatibility problems are known.
Comments: Dust is known to cause both contact dermatitis and respiratory reactions.
Origin: Africa

Jarrah

Appearance
Color: Heartwood is uniformly pinkish to dark red, often a rich, dark red mahogany hue, turning a deep brownish red with age and exposure; sapwood is pale. Frequent black streaks with occasional ingrown grain.
Grain: Frequently interlocked or wavy. Texture is even and moderately coarse.
Variations Within Species And Grades: Moderate to high color variation.

Properties
Hardness/Janka: Janka:1910; (48% harder than Northern red oak).
Dimensional Stability: Below average (11.0; 28% less stable than Northern red oak).

Workability
Sawing/Machining: Difficult to work because of high density and irregular grain; carbide tooling recommended.
Sanding: Sands well, but dust can stain fabric and wall treatments.
Nailing: No known problems.
Finishing: Red color can bleed into some finishes - a problem when mixing species.
Comments: Resistant to termites and fungus.
Origin: Australia

Mahogany

Appearance
Color: Dark reddish brown.
Grain: Striped figuring in quartersawn selections; texture is even and very fine.
Variations Within Species And Grades: Moderate color variation.

Properties
Hardness/Janka: Janka:2200; (71% harder than Northern red oak).
Dimensional Stability: Above average (6.2; 28% more stable than red oak).

Workability
Sawing/Machining: Moderately difficult due to hardness; carbide tooling recommended.
Sanding: Sands satisfactorily.
Nailing: No known problems
Finishing: Oil residue may be a problem. This can be eliminated by wiping with the appropriate 100% pure (not recycled) solvent before the sealer is applied.
Comments: Some respiratory/allergic reaction potential.
Origin: South America

Brazilian Maple

Appearance
Color: Pale cream to yellow cream; no contrast between sapwood and heartwood.
Grain: Straight, fine, uniform.
Variations Within Species And Grades: Lower grades may have darker tan/brown colors

Properties
Hardness/Janka: Janka: 1500 (16% harder than Northern red oak).
Dimensional Stability: Average (8.8; 2% less stable than Northern red oak). Very sensitive to moisture fluctuations.

Workability
Sawing/Machining: Works cleanly; requires a wide set for ripping; very hard on router bits.
Sanding: Sands satisfactorily if correct snading sequence is followed.
Nailing: No known problems.
Finishing: Takes finish very well. May be difficult to stain.
Comments: Origin: South America

Merbau

Appearance
Color: Heartwood is yellowish to orange-brown when freshly cut, turning brown or dark red- brown upon exposure.
Grain: Straight to interlocked or wavy; coarse texture.
Variations Within Species And Grades: Moderate to high variation in color.

Properties
Hardness/Janka: Janka:1925; (49% harder than Northern red oak).
Dimensional Stability: Excellent (4.6; 47% more stable than red oak). However, actual installations have demonstrated significant movement in use.

Workability
Sawing/Machining: Sawing is difficult; wood gums saw teeth and dulls cutting edges; carbide tooling recommended.
Sanding: Sands satisfactorily if correct sanding sequence is followed.
Nailing: No known problems.
Finishing: Takes neutral finish well. May be difficult to stain.
Comments: High resistance to termites.
Origin: Southeast Asia

Tasmanian Oak

Appearance
Color: Pale straw with occasional pinkish high-lights, tan colors, some medium gray/brown colors; over time overall color variation is muted with an ambering of the straw colors to darker tan.
Grain: All riftsawn.
Variations Within Species And Grades: Even range of color shadings.

Properties
Hardness/Janka: Janka: 1350 (5% harder than Norhtern red oak).
Dimensional Stability: Data not available.

Workability
Sawing/Machining: Cuts easily; some splintering when routing.
Sanding: Sands satisfactorily if correct sanding sequence is followed.
Nailing: No known problems
Finishing: No known finishing problems.
Comments: Has been known to cause contact dermatitis.
Origin: Australia

Padauk

Appearance
Color: Heartwood is vivid reddish orange when freshly cut, darkening to reddish- or purple- brown or black over time. Sapwood is cream-colored. Very uniform in color.
Grain: Straight to interlocked; coarse texture.
Variations Within Species And Grades: Slight variation in color.

Properties
Hardness/Janka: Janka:1725; (34% harder than Northern red oak).
Dimensional Stability: Excellent (5.2; 40% more stable than Northern red oak).

Workability
Sawing/Machining: Saws well, but requires a slow feed rate; carbide tooling recommended. Machines easily, with some tearing of the interlocked grain.
Sanding: Sands satisfactorily.
Nailing: No known problems.
Finishing: Because of the oil in the wood, oil-modified finishes may require long dry times. Waterborne finishes are often recommended. Has a tendcy to bleed. Conversion varnishes also have been known to work well.
Comments: Dermatological and respiratory allergic potential.
Origin: Africa

Purpleheart

Appearance
Color: Heartwood is brown when freshly cut, turning deep purple to purplish brown over time. Sapwood is a lighter cream color.
Grain: Usually straight; medium to fine texture. Presence of minerals in some boards may cause uneven coloration.
Variations Within Species And Grades: Moderate to high color variation.

Properties
Hardness/Janka: Janka: 2890, (124% harder than Northern red oak.
Dimensional Stability: Above average (6.1; 29% more stable than Northern red oak).

Workability
Sawing/Machining: Moderately difficult due to hardness; frequent sharpening of tools required; slow feed rate and carbide tooling recommended.
Sanding: Moderately difficult.
Nailing: Good holding ability.
Finishing: Takes finishes well; some have found that water-based finishes hold color better. Tendency to bleed with some finishes.
Comments: Often used as a feature strip or as part of an inlay.
Origin: Mexico, Central and South America.

Sapele

Appearance
Color: Medium to dark red-brown; darkens over time.
Grain: Fine, interlocked.
Variations Within Species And Grades: Quarter-sawn material has a ribbon-striped effect.

Properties
Hardness/Janka: Janka: 1500 (16% harder than Northern red oak).
Dimensional Stability: Above average (7.4; 14% more stable than Northern oak).

Workability
Sawing/Machining: Saws easily.
Sanding: Sands satisfactorily if correct sanding sequence is followed.
Nailing: No known problems
Finishing: Staining may over-darken the wood. No known finishing problems
Comments: Origin: Africa

Brazilian Teak

Appearance
Color: At first, red-brown or purple-brown with light yellow-brown or purple streaks; after exposure, uniform light brown or yellow-brown.
Grain: Fine texture, interlocked, waxy or oily feel.
Variations Within Species And Grades: Dramatic shading that mellows as the flor matures.

Properties
Hardness/Janka: Janka: 3540 (174% harder than Northern red oak.
Dimensional Stability: Average (7.6; 12% more stable than red oak).

Workability
Sawing/Machining: Works well, but is very hard - use carbide blades and bits.
Sanding: Difficult. Scratches are easily seen - each sanding must carefully remove the scratches from the previous cut, or sanding marks will be visble in the finish.
Nailing: Pre-drilling and hand-nailing are preferred.
Finishing: Test all products before using them on the actual job site. Oil-modified finishes may not dry when applied over this wood if standard procedures are followed. Moisture-cure urethane, conversion varnish and waterborne finishes are generally more successf
Comments: Has been known to cause contact dermatitis.
Origin: South America

Thai-Burmese Teak

Appearance
Color: Heartwood varies from yellow-brown to dark golden brown; turns rich brown under exposure to sunlight. Sapwood is a lighter cream color.
Grain: Straight; coarse, uneven texture.
Variations Within Species And Grades: Moderate to high color variation.
Properties
Hardness/Janka: Janka: Average of 1000; (16% softer than Northern red oak).
Dimensional Stability: Excellent (5.8; 33% more stable than Northern red oak).

Workability
Sawing/Machining: Moderate ease in working with hand and machine tools; silica in wood dulls tools quickly; carbide tooling is recommended.
Sanding: Clogs abrasives; frequent sandpaper changes are required. Generally difficult to sand - it may dish out if screened too much with a dull screen, and the edger digs easily.
Nailing: No known problems.
Finishing: Natural oils may interfere with adhesion and drying of some finishes. To reduce the wood's tendency to repel finish coats, surface resins may be removed with a 100% pure solvent (not recycled) that is compatible with the finish to be used.
Comments: Has an oily feel. Respiratory and dermatological allergic potential.
Origin: Asia

Brazilian
Ipe Walnut
Appearance
Color: Can vary from light yellowish tan with green overtones to almost blackish brown; exhibits a large range of coloration when freshly milled; darkens over time to medium to dark brown.
Grain: Fine to medium, straight to very irregular.

Properties
Hardness/Janka: Janka:3680; (185% harder than Northern Red Oak).
Dimensional Stability: Average (8.0; 7% more stable than Northern red oak).
Durability: Workability
Sawing/Machining: Difficult, especially with hand tools.
Sanding: Difficult. This wood is dense and oily. Scratches are easily seen – each sanding must carefully remove the scratches from the previous cut, or sanding marks will be visible in the finish.
Nailing: Pre-drilling and hand-nailing may be preferred.
Finishing: Test all products before using them on the actual floor. Oil-modified finish will require a lengthy dry time. Successful techniques include using a moisture-cure urethane sealer and a water-borne topcoat, or burnishing and sealing with a shellac-based se
Comments: Often used as a decking material. Has been known to cause contact dermatitis.
Origin: South America.
Wenge

Appearance
Color: Heartwood is yellow-brown when freshly cut, turning dark-brown to almost black with alternate layers of light and dark. Sapwood is yellowish-white and clearly demarcated from heartwood.
Grain: Straight when quartersawn; coarse texture.
Variations Within Species And Grades: Moderate variations in color.

Properties

Hardness/Janka: Janka:1630; (26% harder than Northern red oak).
Dimensional Stability: Excellent (5.8; 33% more stable than red oak). However, actual installations have demonstrated significant movement in use.

Workability
Sawing/Machining: Difficult due to rapid dulling of tools; carbide tooling recommended.
Sanding: Moderately difficult. Particular attention should be paid to removing the scratches from the previous sanding.
Nailing: No known problems.
Finishing: Staining may be difficult.
Comments: Dermatological and respiratory allergic potential.
Origin: Africa